|Overall Cartel Period||1994-2000|
|Participants||Akzo Nobel and EKA Chemicals; Erikem Luxembourg SA and Finnish Chemicals Oy ; Elf Aquitaine SA and Arkema France SA; Uralita SA and Aragonesas Industrias y Energia SAU|
|Total Fines (DOJ)||No fines imposed|
|Total Fines (EC)||€79.1 million|
In March 2003, the European Commission (“EC”) began investigating manufacturers of sodium chlorate, a chemical used mainly to produce the chlorine dioxide that the pulp and paper industries employ when bleaching commercial pulp. In 1999, the market for sodium chlorate was approximately €203 million. According to the EC, from 1994 to 2000, sodium chlorate producers fixed sales volumes and prices at regular meetings at which sensitive commercial information was exchanged.
- The EC imposed fines of more than €79 million on eight companies.
- Akzo Nobel and its subsidiary, EKA Chemicals AB, received full immunity for being the first to inform the EC of the cartel.
- The EC increased Arkema France’s fines by 90% for having already been fined for cartel activities in three prior Commission decisions.
- This was the first instance where the Commission had increased the fine for a company because of its previous involvement in cartels.
|Akzo Nobel and EKA Chemicals||Immunity||06/11/2008|
|Erikem Luxembourg SA and Finnish Chemicals Oy||€ 10.2 million||06/11/2008|
|Elf Aquitaine SA and Arkema France SA||€ 59 million||06/11/2008|
|Uralita SA and Aragonesas Industrias y Energia SAU||€ 9.9 million||06/11/2008|